Tuesday, 30 April 2019

Future posts

I got many ideas on the future blog posts, but at the moment i am very busy trying to finish an Autism course quite quickly. After that i will come back to the microbiota articles, and then I wil follow with micronutrients. I have some ideas about rejuvenation, mind boosters, nootropics and treating senescence (anti-ageing strategies). But this is still ongoing.

I will give you some homework if you are curious by nature. Search about the 2 pathways activated by rapamycin, about liposomal glutathione levels decrease as we age , resveratrol, ginsengoids and how real are the pre-biotic products.

That's all for today.
Enjoy this beautiful summer.

G.

Wednesday, 3 April 2019

A real home

We are humans.
I just realised now, for a countless time, that I keep forgetting to listen to the voice of my soul. I became aware once more, and I am slowly reaching that deep level of peace and silence. I am back home. Where my real home is.

Welcome home, my friends! I wish you the same.

Monday, 25 March 2019

Macrobiota - mucus and milk fermentation

The food that you consume is the one feeding your microbiome. Everything that cannot be digested by yourself it is used by your microbiome, which will transform all these indigestible components into energy that it is used by you.

Some beneficial microbes nibble on you eating the mucus produced by your body, as the human body will produce around 10 liters of mucus every day. The mucus is made of a protein backbone with chains of sugar molecules attached to it, known as mucus glycans. Some microbes adapted to eat these glycan structures produced by our body. These microbes are specialized in the consumption of the host-produced glycans, such as in mucus. Another type of glycans produced by the human body are the human milk oligosaccharides. The glycans in mucus and human milk are structurally alike, they are awkward sugars, rarely found in plants. This is why not many microbes can degrade these glycans.

The dietary glycan starch is a sugar chain of only glucose molecules, while primary sugars of mucus and milk glycans are n-acetilglucosamine, fucose, manose and sialic acid. Because these can be used by the microbiota, they are considered pre-biotic substances to nurture specific microorganisms (who serve a beneficial and protective role for the most).

The group of bacteria specialized in the degradation of the human milk oligosaccharides are known as bifidobacteria. In early life , bifidobacteria plays a role in energy harvest for the infant, they also play a crucial role in the immune and metabolic imprinting. Later in life, permanent colonization of the mucosal layer also leads to immune and metabolic regulation contributing to the host health. Because many pathogens use mucus as a signal to attack, the beneficial mucus colonizing microbiota members will protect against such pathogens. The host tolerates microbes in the mucosal layer and even produce extra mucus when sensing their presence. Another reason of existence of awkward sugars is that, if all bacteria will degrade the mucosal layer, this could be problematic.

In conclusion, some microbiota members like eating the glycans from mucus and milk. Early life, they release energy from human milk, later in life they serve as a line of defense against pathogens. They also stimulate a healthy host immune and metabolic response. Our body will nurture specific members of the microbiota by producing special sugars.

Next post will be about long versus short dietary habits.

See you soon!
G.

Tuesday, 12 March 2019

Microbiota diet and disease

Probably everyone knows that our microbiota is an anaerobic chamber with trillions of bacteria which work together and their combined efforts help us break down food and harvest as much energy as possible from the food we eat. Our microbiota depends a lot on the food we consume. In return, it will help us to digest the food we consume. Without the bacteria from our gut, the nutritional value of our food would be a lot lower (we would probably eat 5 times as much food to reach the same energy levels).

When microbes start to degrade the fibers from our food, this process is called fermentation. Microbial fermentation is a common process used to produce food (cheese, beer, bread etc.). All these foods have microorganisms added to them during the making process, leading to special taste or alcohol. Our microbiota also carries out a wide range of fermentation processes, using anaerobic fermentation in order to sustain the inner environment. The bacteria ca ferment both sugar and protein from our food, leading to the production of many chemicals with energetic value, essential vitamins and health stimulating products that are released in our guts by the microbiota. Many compounds are short chain fatty acids such as lactic acid, acetate, butyrate and propionate. All these short chain fatty acids are a major source of energy for our intestinal cells. Almost 10% of the energy used by our intestinal cells comes from the microbial produced butyrate. The butyrate and the propionate have several health benefits (pain reduction and inflammation response reduction).

The microbiota is actually a microbial ecologic network, so, for optimal functionality, we need to have a microbial diverse microbiota. Our gut is an anaerobic chamber with trillions of bacteria working together and their combined effort helps us to break down food and to harvest as much energy as possible from the food we eat.

I will post next about mucus and milk fermentation.
See you soon!
G.

Friday, 8 March 2019

Microbiota cycle - reloaded

I have a new series of articles about the microbiota, all of them fascinating from some point of view. i will start soon with  microbiota diet and disease.

See you soon
G.

Tuesday, 8 January 2019

Macrobiota and immune system ageing

There is a difference between intestinal flora composition of elderly in the community, compared with the elderly in long term care. In this case, we will have four groups of subjects, to compare. We have the first group case, elderly living in a local community, in their homes, second group, elderly attending out-patient day hospitals, third group, elderly in a short term hospital care, and the last group, long term residential care elderly.

There are clear differences between them, with residential care group having a higher proportion of Bacteriodetes,and the community group having a higher proportion of Firmicutes. We have Parabacteriodes, Eubacteria and Copprobacillus associated with elderly in residential care. Elderly living in the community had a more diverse microbiota, more abundant in bacteria like Copprococcus and Roseburia.

In conclusion, the elderly benefit more from staying in their own homes, possibly because of their exposure to a bigger variety of foods and environmental factors. The knowledge gained from these researches can be used to stimulate the missing healthy bacteria and to improve microbiota diversity and the health of the elderly in residential care.

Tuesday, 25 December 2018

Centenarians and microbiota

Centenarians are people older than 100 years (this is what we call longevity). When they are healthy, they are good examples of successful ageing. Living over 100 is more common in some parts of the world than others. The highest density of centenarians is present in Japan and Southern Europe, People aged between 100 and 104 have reduced microbial diversity and compromised stability of microbiota. They also got specific age-related microbes, higher levels of opportunistic pathogens and lower levels of beneficial butyrate producing bacteria. But healthy people with great longevity reaching 104-109 are different than normal centenarians. They have the same bacteria, but the proportion is different. They got more Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia and Christensenellaceae. Longevity is indeed associated with microbiota changes, and further studies of the specific bacteria linked with longevity can help us to find strategies that use diet to promote a healthy microbiota and a healthy ageing.

Dietary habits can play a role on the development and the severity of the chronic diseases such as diabetes type 2, heart disease and certain types of cancer. You probably know that nutrition has a role in preventing diseases and promoting health. Caloric intake and timing of eating food, and well as the nutrients provided by the food consumed, all of these have a role in improving health and even longevity.

For example, reducing food but preventing malnutrition improves ageing (first research on this subject, made in 1935, found that food restriction avoiding malnutrition resulted in higher maximum lifespan in rats). Since then experiments followed on nematode worms, fruit flies, fish, mice up to non-human primates and humans, and all of them underlined that the quality of diet and the caloric intake plays a role in improving health and longevity. Basically a caloric restriction between 10 to 50% improves the lifespan in most of the cases, however there is a small number of cases where a higher percentage of the calorie restriction will not increase the lifespan, an 40-50% is too much for these subjects.

Microbiota-wise, longevity is characterized by a stable core microbiota. The core microbiota shrinks with age, and the subdominant bacteria increase in abundance. For Chinese, Japanese and Italian elderly groups the bacteria that are enriched include Clostridium, Ruminococcaceae, Akkermansia and Christensenellaceae. These bacteria are linked to gut body mass index, immunomodulation and healthy homeostasis. In conclusion, there are several factors of one's diet to influence longevity. Caloric restriction is one of them, having a major potential to increase life expectancy.

General knowledge on the relationship between gut microbiota and longevity can be used to improve the lifespan of the elderly through diet and modulation of their microbiota.